What is motherboard?
The motherboard is the main component of a computer often referred as the main board or mobo as shortcut. Basically a large circuit board that fits in the computer case and all the computer components connected on it. There is a Central processing unit sockets or CPU sockets is placed. There is memory slots where the primary memory DIMM modules known as RAM inserted and also bus slots or expansion slots these are used to install various components to add capabilities to computer such as video card, sound card, network card and so on and also SATA connectors where to attach storage devices such as SSDs and hard drives we can attach multiple storage devices.
In modern mother boards we can find M.2 slot this is newer slot attaching M.2 solid state drive and also modern mother board we can find platform controller hub or PCH.
This platform controller hub is latest chip-set architecture by intel that we placed older architecture. In older motherboard there is couple of chips is called chipset that is north bridge chip and south bridge chip. These chip-set have different functions.
North bridges are located at the north side or top of the mother board acts like a middle man between the central processing unit, PCI expansion slots and memory slots. South bridge is located at the southern side or lower portion of the mother board responsible for the things like PCI slots, SATA connectors and universal serial ports (USB) so on.
The order for CPU is to communicate with lower interface had go through south bridge but this architecture is placed by platform controller hub chip. The PCI architecture function of the north bridge largely integrated with central processing unit so the north bridge chip is completely eliminated.
The function of south bridge moved on entirely by platform controller hub chip.
The motherboard comes with several input and output interfaces. These interfaces are largely located on rear of input and output panel of the motherboard. The most common interface of the motherboard is the universal serial bus (USB). Motherboards have typically several universal serial bus ports.
Because there are so many peripheral devices utilities interface such as keyboard, mouse, external hard drives, printers, pen drives etc. in addition to connectivity the universal serial bus ports also supplies electrical power to some of specific devices. The majority of universal serial bus ports mounted in the rear of input and output panel and some are located on the surface of the motherboard.
The motherboards have built in video adapter this is known as integrated video. The video adapter and motherboard are central one unit. Older motherboard has a video graphics interface or video graphics adapter port. Where modern motherboard has a HDMI port and display port.
Integrated video adapter are not very powerful. They are good for normal everyday use with light applications. But when we use for higher graphic application such as gaming they can go for short circuit. That’s why lot of peoples will bypass integrated video and add expansion the video card that has enough power to suitable for the games.
The other port appears in the input and output rear panel is the network interface card. This port is designed for RJ 45 connector with Ethernet cable connects the computer to the network.
The sound card it is like integrated video. If motherboard is built with sound card it is known as integrated sound. Sound card is process audio to computer speaker.
Motherboard comes in different shapes and sizes this is known as form factor. The most common form factor used in today in computer is Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) created in 1995. The DE FACTO standard is the form factor for motherboards computers today. Before size ATX motherboard is 12/9.6 inches.
Now prior to ATX is AT form factor AT stands for Advanced Technology it was used in 1980s developed by IBM. In 80s motherboard sizes are 12/13.8 inches. And they are no longer development of success of ATX other version ATX is developed that is Micro ATX. The Micro ATX motherboard is smaller than ATX motherboard. Micro ATX motherboard is 9.6/9.6 inches with the square design compared to standard rectangular design of ATX. These motherboards are cheaper than ATX boards and designed to fit in smaller computer cases. The micro ATX has advanced features and consumes less power than standard ATX motherboard.