Resistance split-phase motor induction motor
If an auxiliary winding of much fewer turns of smaller wire is placed at 90oelectrical to the main winding, it can start a single phase induction motor. (Figure below) With lower inductance and higher resistance, the current will experience less phase shift than the main winding. About 30o of phase difference may be obtained. This coil produces a moderate starting torque, which is disconnected by a centrifugal switch at 3/4 of synchronous speed. This simple (no capacitor) arrangement serves well for motors up to 1/3 horsepower (250 watts) driving easily started loads.
In the split-phase motor, the startup winding is designed with a higher resistance than the running winding. This creates an LR circuit which slightly shifts the phase of the current in the startup winding. When the motor is starting, the startup winding is connected to the power source via a set of spring-loaded contacts pressed upon by the stationary centrifugal switch.
The starting winding is wound with fewer turns of smaller wire than the main winding, so it has a lower inductance (L) and higher resistance (R). The lower L/Rratio creates a small phase shift, not more than about 30 degrees, between the flux due to the main winding and the flux of the starting winding.
The starting direction of rotation may be reversed simply by exchanging the connections of the startup winding relative to the running winding.
The phase of the magnetic field in this startup winding is shifted from the phase of the mains power, allowing the creation of a moving magnetic field which starts the motor. Once the motor reaches near design operating speed, the centrifugal switch activates, opening the contacts and disconnecting the startup winding from the power source. The motor then operates solely on the running winding. The starting winding must be disconnected since it would increase the losses in the motor.
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