How Electrical Current Flows Through Conductor?

How Electrical Current Flows Through Conductor?

The very basic of electricity is Atom. Everything including our self is made of atom. All the materials we used is made from atoms. Materials are just different because the construction of atom is slightly different.

The atoms are made from free particles which are found from the center of the nucleus and free particles are found outside of the nucleus. Center of the atom the nucleus is present in nucleus the neutrons are present which have no charge.

And have the proton which is positively charge. The neutrons and protons heavier the electrons these will stay in nucleus. Surrounding the nucleus different layers of orbital shell these are all free pass electrons. Electrons flow along the fly pass almost like the orbits or planets expect the electrons flow speed of the light.

Electrons are negatively charged and attracted to the positive charge of the protons, electrons around the nucleus in orbit shells and there are set number electrons present in shells.

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The atoms hold its electrons tightly some materials hold down more tight than the others. Outer most shell is known as the orbit shell. In this shell some materials loose the bound electrons which can floats the atoms. Atoms can pass electrons or cool conductors on other hand atoms which do not have free electrons.

They insulators are glass and rubber. We can combine these materials and safely used electricity by having conductors in center which allows electrons move around this insulator restrict where they can flow safe.


Inside the copper cable the free electrons around the nucleus of copper atom. The free electrons are able to move atoms randomly in any direction. It we connect the copper cable to a closed circuit with the power source such as battery voltage will be force the electron to move and this will overflow in the same direction and return back to the other terminal of the battery.

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In safe circuit this means the electrons will flow along two terminals positive and negative power source. So we can add things like light poles and this electron have to pass through this and get other terminal we can use as light. The circuit will open or close, in closed circuit electrons will flow around, in open circuit electrons will not able to flow.


Voltage is pushing force of electrons in a circuit like a pressure in a water pipe more pressure more water will flow, if less pressure less water will flow. Same voltage if more voltage more electrons will flow, if less voltage less electrons will flow.

What is volt mean?

Volt is a Joule/coulomb

Joule – is a measurement of energy work

Coulomb- is a group of flowing electrons

Let us see joule/coulomb works

A 9V battery is provided 9 joule of energy in form of work or heat per grpup of electrons from one side of battery to this case current of electrons from one side of battery through the light pole which produces light and the electrons flows to the other side of the battery. Therefore 9 joules of heat is produced by light pole.

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What is Current

Current is a low of electrons when circuit is closed it means electrons can flow,when circuit is open no electrons will flow.

We can measure the flow of electrons just like the flow of water in a pipe. To measure the flow of electrons we can use the unit as Ampere.

1 Amp = 1 coulomb/sec

1 coulomb – group of electrons

The group is incredibly large approximately 6 billion 242 millions of electrons has to pass in 1 second. That’s why electrons are group together that makes ampere to make easier for engineers.

What is Resistance

Resistance is a restriction of flow of electrons in a circuit. Electrons are naturally have some resistance. The longer the wire greater the resistance and lower the wire lesser the resistance.

Resistance in flow of electrons is different for each materials and temperature of material also changes resistance in flow of electrons.

Circuit used specially designed component’s used known as resistors purposely resisted the flow of electrons. This is to protect components from too many electrons flowing through it. We can also use light and heat such as incandescent light.

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Resistance occur when electrons colloid with atoms. Collision is different from one material to other. Copper has very low collision rate other materials such as iron has much more collision.

When collision occurs atoms generate heat and temperature the material will start and light as well as heat which is an incandescent light work.


What is Inductor

When a wire is trapped as a coil it will generate a magnetic field as a current passes through. The cable is naturally great magnetic field by itself. By wrapping in coil magnetic field becomes a strong. The magnetic field effects the electrons within the wire.

We can increase the strength of magnetic field by wrapping the coil around the iron core, also by increasing the number of turns of coils and also by increasing the amount of the current in the circuit. This is how electromagnets works and this basis the induction motor works.

When magnetic field passes across the wire it will induces the voltage in their wire. The induced electromagnetic force will push the electrons in certain direction.

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What is Transformer

In transformer we can combine one coil wire generate electricity and other coil is proximity each other touching and this will create transformer.

Transformer induces the voltage into primary coil over into a secondary coil this will force electrons to flow if coil in secondary side as closed circuit. In transformer we can increase or decrease the voltage between the primary and secondary coil simply by changing amount of coil on the either side.

What is Capacitor

Capacitor forces positive and negative charge separated by plates. When it is connected to power supply it builds up stores electrons. When an electric field when power supply is interrupted then charge released will released flow up and meet again.

This allows power source for few seconds until the charges have backed up again. The capacitor is very common used in circuit boards.


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