Maximum Demand Formula, Calculation & MD Calculator

Maximum demand calculator:

Enter the Peak Operating Load for 30 minutes’ block and power factor between 0 to 1, then press the calculate button to get the Maximum demand in kVA.

Enter Peak Operating Load: kW
Enter Power Factor:  
Maximum Demand: kVA

Maximum demand Calculation:

The maximum demand in kVA is nothing but a peak operating load (maximum load) in kW of the consumer for the specific interval divided by the operating power factor. The interval will be defined by your electricity provider. Hence, the maximum demand formula can be written as,

Maximum demand in kVA = Peak Load in kW / Power factor

If you know load factor and connected load means

Maximum Demand= Connected Load x Load Factor / Power Factor.

In India, Maharashtra state MSEB has 30 minutes’ block, which means, the continuous peak demand will be calculated within any 30 minutes.  Gujarat has 15 minutes and 30 minutes’ block.

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Note that the maximum demand will be calculated from kVA only.


Now you are running 5 numbers of 5.5 kW motor @ 90% of the load with 0.86 pf. Calculate the maximum demand.

Peak Load = 5 * 5.5 * 0.9 = 24.75kW

Maximum demand = Peak load / power factor

=24.75 / 0.86

= 28.77kVA

Look at the table of India’s all-state maximum demand charges per kVA. The penalty is applicable when the maximum demand exceeds the contracted demands.

Maximum Demand Charges
State MD Charges (INR Per kVA) Penalty (%)
Telangana 390 150
Tamilnadu 350 130
Kerala 300 130
Karnataka 275 200
Maharashtra 150 150
Pondicherry 300 200
Andhra Pradesh 475 150
Assam 375 120
Bihar 330 NA
Chandigarh 300 120
Chhattisgarh 350 115
Delhi 350 130
Goa 200 NA
Gujarat 360 200
Haryana 750 NA
Himachal Pradesh 400 NA
Jammu and Kashmir 135 NA
Jharkhand 400 NA
Madhya Pradesh 310 120
Odisha 250 NA
Punjab 179 250/kVA
Rajasthan 270 NA
Sikkim 555 NA
Uttar Pradesh 340 NA
Uttarakhand 360 NA
West Bengal 384 200
NA- Not Available
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How to reduce Maximum demand:?

  • Maintain power factor near to unity. Since the power factor is inversely proportional to the maximum demand. Hence by increasing power factor, the maximum demand will be reduced.
  • Avoid bulk switch On load. Keep scheduling the load.
  • Install Speed driver.
  • Optimize the single load. Example, you have two motors which is operated at 50% of load, here you can cut off one motor and shift the load to a single motor. By the way, we can reduce 30% of the load.


  1. I am again repeating.
    Suppose I use a load of 2kw for 10 minutes only and rest of the time it is less than 0.5 kw.
    What will be mdi.

  2. I too received current month else bill, charging rs 178.12 as MD penalty. It is also mentioned recorded MD is 4.2 kw. In our House, we have 3KW connection. This is the first time. Can some one advise how to control or avoid getting MD penalty. We are in mysore, Karnataka

    • The think is you should not switch on the all electricity loads at once. For example, if your AC is on, then do not switch on the other electrical loads such as heater, induction stove, geyser etc. Use load shedding.

  3. We have a single story house with 3 ph, 4 wire meter installed at our house, Our sanctioned load is 4.0KW. There are no demand charges for residential customers, Some have time of day billing but we don’t. We have a graduated rate for electrical consumption. i.e. first 100 KWH billed at X rate second 300 KWH billed at Y and so forth.
    Our electric utility is owned by Chinese owners and they are engaged in many illegal practices. For example
    What is the definition of connected load? They usually define this as all the electrical loads in the house, drawing current or not. To my lay understanding connected load is every electrical load that is drawing current at any point in time. If the load is plugged in but not switched on then it’s not part of connected load. Am I right or wrong. In Oct 2020 when my service was started they charged me over RS 30,000 for bill of the first first month. I had to take them to the court to get my money back.


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