# PWM to Voltage Calculator, Formula, PWM to Voltage Calculation

## PWM to Voltage Calculator:

Enter the value of duty cycle, D to determine the value of output voltage, V(V).

 Enter Duty Cycle: Result – Output Voltage: V

## PWM to Voltage Formula:

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is a technique widely used in electronic circuits to control power delivery, motor speed, light dimming, and more.

In PWM, a digital signal is used to generate an analog output by switching between high and low states at a high frequency.

The average voltage delivered is proportional to the duty cycle of the PWM signal.

The duty cycle (D) is the percentage of one period in which a signal or system is active.

PWM voltage output is typically calculated by considering the duty cycle as a fraction of the maximum possible value and the maximum voltage achievable.

The output voltage, V(V) is equal to the duty cycle, D divided by the maximum duty cycle value (256) multiplied by the peak voltage (5) of the system.

Output voltage, V(V) = (D / 256) * 5

V(V) = output voltage in volts, V.

D = duty cycle.

### PWM to Voltage Calculation:

1. Calculate the output voltage of a PWM signal with a duty cycle of 128:

Given: D = 128.

Output voltage, V(V) = (D / 256) * 5

V(V) = (128 / 256) * 5

V(V) = 2.5V.

1. Determine the duty cycle for a PWM signal with a output voltage of 1.25V:

Given: V(V) = 1.25V.

Output voltage, V(V) = (D / 256) * 5

D = V(V) * 256 / 5

D = 1.25 * 256 / 5

D = 64.

### Applications and Considerations:

• Electronic Control: This calculation is essential for designers who need to match the PWM output to specific voltage levels for device control.
• Embedded Systems: In microcontroller applications, PWM is a method to simulate analog output where only digital GPIO pins are available.
• Power Efficiency: PWM is highly efficient for managing the energy output, significantly in LED dimming and motor control.