## Terminal Voltage Calculator

Enter the values of electromotive force, emf_{(V)}, current, I_{(A)} and resistance, R_{(}_{Ω)} to determine the value of terminal voltage, V_{t(V)}.

__Terminal Voltage Formula:__

__Terminal Voltage Formula:__

Terminal voltage is an essential concept in electrical engineering, particularly concerning batteries and electrical power sources.

It describes the voltage output of a battery or any electrical source under load, considering the internal resistance and the current flowing through the circuit. Terminal voltage is crucial for determining the actual voltage available to an external circuit and for understanding the performance of electrical power sources under various operating conditions.

Terminal voltage, V_{t(V)} in volts electromotive force, emf_{(V)} in volts minus the product of current, I_{(A) }in amperes and resistance, R_{(}_{Ω)} in ohms.

Terminal voltage, V_{t(V)} = emf_{(V)} – I_{(A)} * R_{(}_{Ω)}

V_{t(V)} = terminal voltage in volts, V.

emf_{(V)} = electromotive force in volts, V.

I_{(A)} = current in amperes, A.

R_{(}_{Ω)} = resistance in ohms, Ω.

__Terminal Voltage Calculation:__

__Terminal Voltage Calculation:__

- Calculate the terminal voltage of a battery with an electromotive force of 12 volts, a current of 2 amperes, and an internal resistance of 0.5 ohms:

Given: emf_{(V)} = 12V, I_{(A)} = 2A, R_{(}_{Ω)} = 0.5 Ω.

Terminal voltage, V_{t(V)} = emf_{(V)} – I_{(A)} * R_{(}_{Ω)}

V_{t(V)} = 12 – 2 * 0.5

V_{t(V)} = 12 – 1

V_{t(V)} = 11V.

- Suppose a voltage source has an electromotive force of 24 volts and an internal resistance of 1 ohm, and the terminal voltage is 21V. Calculate the current flowing.

Given: emf_{(V)} = 24V, V_{t(V)} = 21V, R_{(}_{Ω)} = 1 Ω.

Terminal voltage, V_{t(V)} = emf_{(V)} – I_{(A)} * R_{(}_{Ω)}

I_{(A)} = emf_{(V)} – V_{t(V) }/ R_{(}_{Ω)}

I_{(A)} = 24 – 21 / 1

I_{(A)} = 3V.

__Applications and Considerations:__

__Applications and Considerations:__

- Electrical Engineering: Terminal voltage calculations are critical for designing circuits that operate efficiently under various load conditions.
- Battery-Powered Devices: Knowing the terminal voltage helps in assessing battery life and device performance.
- Electric Vehicles: Terminal voltage impacts the performance and range of electric vehicles.