HOW DOES INTERNET WORKS?
While watching video or something else in internet it will travel 1000 miles to reach google data center.
The data center is 1000 miles away from you as your video stored in solid state device (data center).
How this data does reached your mobile phone or laptop. It is with the help of satellites. From data center signal could be sent to satellite via antenna from satellite the signal is send to your mobile phone another antenna near to you. However this way of transmitting signal is not good idea. Let’s see why
The satellite is placed in 22000 miles above the earth’s equator. In order to direct transmission is successful data would travel to total distance of 44000 miles. Such a long distance of travel causes a significant delay in receiving in signal. It causes huge signal loss which is most acceptable in most application.
If the video dose not reach you through satellite then how does actually reaches you?
Fiber optic network
It is done with the complicated network of optical fiber cables. Which connect data center and your device?
Your phone is connected to a network via cellular data or any WiFi router but ultimately some point phone will be connected to network optical fiber cables.
In data center the videos are stored in the solid state device. This solid state device acts as the internal memory of the server. The server is simply a powerful computer whose job is to provide your data or stored content when you requested.
Now the challenge is how to transfer data from data center specifically to your device through networks. Before proceeding further we must understand the important concept which is concept of IP address.
Every device that is connected to internet whether it is a computer, server or mobile is identified. Unique numbers known as IP address. You can set your IP address similarly as home address. Address is unique identified by your home. Any letter sends to you precisely because of your home address. Similarly in the internet world and IP address acts as a shipping address which all information reaches to the destination. Internet service provider will decide the IP address of your device and you are able to see address given to your mobile phone or laptop.
Server in the data center also known as IP address server stores the website you can access any website. Just by knowing servers IP address. However it is this problem main names like YouTube, FB.com etc are used correspond to IP address which is easiest to form remember from sequence of numbers another thing is server has the capability of storing the server websites.
Server consists of multiple websites all the websites cannot be access server IP address. In such cases additional information host address are used unique identified website.
However for giant websites like FB.com or youtube.com data structure will be dedicated to storage of particular website.
To access the internet we always use the main names complex IP address numbers where does the internet get IP address corresponding to our main name request. For this purpose internet uses huge phone book known as DNS. DNS server provides to the internet your internet service provider or other organisation can manage the DNS server.
When you enter the domain name browser sends the request to DNS server to get corresponding IP address. After getting the IP address it will forwards to request to data center more especially to respective server. Once the server get request to access the particular website the data flow starts the data transmits digital format via optical fiber cables. Mostly specially inform of light passes. The light passes sometimes have to travel 1000 miles via a optical fiber cable to reach the destination during their journey they often have to go through tough trails such as hill areas under the sea.
There are few global companies maintain the optical fiber cable networks such as AT&T, Verizon etc.
Let’s see how cable lay under sea
The plow is dropped deep in the sea from the ship. This plow curates trenches on the sea bed which is place the optical fiber cable. Infact this complex OFC network is the backbone of the internet. This optic fiber cable carrying light stretched across the seabed and to your door step. They are connected through the router.
The router converts this light signals into electrical signals the Ethernet cable to transmit the electrical signals to your laptop.
If you accessing cellular data from the optical cable signal has to be send to cell tower and from cell tower signal reaches your cell phone inform of electromagnetic waves. Hence internet is the global network.